Mirror Signal Manoeuvre Routine

The MSM/PSL - routine is fundamental to safe driving. It should be used every time you intend to change your speed or position. You must start the routine in advance of your planned manoeuvre to allow yourself plenty of time to act on what you see in your mirrors.

MSL stands for Mirror-Signal-Manoeuvre. The Manoeuvre part is then extended to mean Position-Speed-Look (PSL).

The Manoeuvre element is broken down into:

The Look element is further broken down into:

The MSM/PSL routine should always be used when:

For an example of how to use the MSM/PSL routine watch the video right.

MSM/PSL Hazard Routine

A hazard is anything that may cause you to manoeuvre - to change your speed or direction. So, whenever you identify a potential or a real hazard, you must be prepared to use the MSM/PSL routine.


As soon as you become aware of any hazard ahead you must check your mirrors.


Decide whether a signal is necessary. You signal to tell other road users of your intentions. If no other road users are present, then no signal is necessary.

Signal in good time - whatever the signal you give, you must do so in good time so that other road users have time to make their own changes to speed or direction smoothly, safely, and under control.


Divided into three more phases.

On Your Driving Test

The driving test examiner will check to see that you use the MSM/PSL routine in good time every time you need to make a driving manoeuvre that calls for the routine to be used, such as changing lanes, making a turn or overtaking.

Failure to use the routine correctly will score you at least one minor fault.

If your incorrect use of the routine causes a dangerous or potentially dangerous situation, for example if you change lanes without checking your mirrors or signalling causing danger to traffic behind, the driving test examiner will score you a dangerous/serious fault and you will fail your driving test.

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